Nomor’s network level simulator is one of the primary tools for verification and validations called Mx-ART (Multi-RAT, Multi-tenant, Multi-Layer, Multi-Network, Multi-Purpose Above Realtime) simulator.  Using coarser modelling of the real system, in particular the protocol layers it can simulate vast scenarios (e.g. a whole city) with speed multiple times faster than real-time. Mx-ART is C/C++ based and makes use of modern techniques such as Intel’s Advanced Vector Extensions (AVX) instruction.

The main features and capabilities of Mx-ART are as follows:

Time Granularity

It can support different time-resolution as low as 0.5 ms; the lower the time granularity, the slower the simulation.

Radio Access Technologies (RATs)

It can simulate LTE (FDD and TDD mode), Wi-Fi, and 5G networks in both uplink and downlink direction.

Cloud-RAN (C-RAN) Support

In addition to LTE RAN architecture, the C-RAN architecture and elements are already available. These elements are Remote Radio Heads (RRHs), fronthaul, Baseband Units (BBUs), BBU-pools (i.e., the data centres with a server supporting multiple BBUs), backhaul.

Network Slicing

Mx-ART supports different slicing approaches. Each network slice contains multiple UEs and one service. Each UE can belong to multiple slices, and it inherits the service of the slice.

Service Traffic Profiles

The traffic manager supports various traffic profiles including but not limited to Full Buffer, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Video Streaming, Web Browsing, VoIP, Fixed size, and custom traffic.

MAC Scheduler

Different scheduling techniques are available in Mx-ART including:

  • Throughput fair: all active UEs receive the same throughput
  • Resource fair: all active UEs receive the same number of PRBs
  • QoS-aware: the scheduler serves the active UEs based on the QoS Class Indicator (QCI))
Mobility

Mx-ART has a mobility manager module that supports various mobility models for the UEs or groups of UEs. These models are:

  • Street Graph Model: It provides semi-realistic traffic simulations, where the simulation objects move on a directed graph and take random turns at intersections. The objects’ behaviour such as turning and speed changes is instantaneous.
  • Circle Model: The circle mobility model uses a random walk model based on the initial speed of each UE. A circular area of given diameter and position confines the mobility of terminals.
  • Pre-defined Pathway Model: It provides a pathway model for specific terminals like a ship moving along the river. This type of mobility model is pre-defined for each of the paths and a UE just follows the steps and positions defined in the model.
Radio Propagation Models

Mx-ART can consider different radio propagation models including Winner+ Radio Propagation, UMTS 30.03, and mmW/cmW.

KPIs

Mx-ART can provide various KPIs. These KPIs can be classified in three main categories:

  • Static KPIs: The KPIs that do not change during the simulations, such as the coverage area.
  • Instantaneous KPIs: After each simulation time interval, the simulator recalculates and updates the values of the KPIs, e.g., the total network throughput.
  • Event Counter KPIs: These KPIs represent the number of occurrences of an event such as Radio Link Failure (RLF) or hand over.